Protecting Europe’s Renewable Energy Grid Against the New Generation of Cyber Threats

Renewable Energy

By Andrew Lintell
Europe is decisively moving towards a future powered by renewable energy, targeting climate neutrality by 2050. In the past year, a significant 24% of the hours were powered with less than a quarter of electricity from fossil fuels, a steep increase from just 4% in 2022.     

This shift signifies a positive transformation in the energy production process. However, it also represents a potential increase in cyber risk in a sector already highly vulnerable to disruption. The more these renewable production systems saturate our energy infrastructure, the more they extend the attack surface and attract malicious entities seeking to exploit vulnerabilities and disrupt critical services.    

As the energy sector integrates more sophisticated technologies such as smart grids, IoT devices, and automated control systems to manage and distribute this green energy, production facilities become inherently more complex and interconnected. The energy sector must rethink its security strategies to become resilient against the growing cyber threats.   

The emerging risks of decentralised energy systems  

The decentralisation of energy systems is a key trend in the move towards renewables, and a fundamental shift from the traditional, centralised power stations. Renewable energy sources such as wind farms and solar panels are widely distributed geographically and often rely on digital technology such as IoT devices, sensors, and cloud systems for efficient operation. This distribution increases the complexity of securing these systems, as there are more points of entry for potential cyberattacks.  

Historically, energy distribution systems that supply energy from the transmission unit to the consumers were largely isolated or ‘air-gapped’ from broader networks. However, today, these systems are increasingly connected to the internet and other IT networks, introducing significant vulnerabilities. These connections expose the systems to various threat actors, from nation-states to cybercriminals, each capable of exploiting weaknesses in security measures.  

The decentralised nature of renewable energy systems similarly expands the potential attack surface. Just as distribution systems are prone to maintaining outdated and vulnerable equipment due to cost and complexity constraints, renewable energy infrastructures might face similar challenges. The shift towards smart, interconnected devices intended to boost efficiency and control also inadvertently broadens the scope for cyberattacks. This scenario underscores the urgent need for a redefined approach to cybersecurity that can adapt to the unique demands of decentralised energy systems, ensuring their resilience against a growing landscape of cyber threats.  

Adopting the German cyber strategy as a blueprint for Europe  

The German cyber strategy serves as an exemplar of proactive cybersecurity governance, particularly well-suited to addressing the challenges posed by decentralised and interconnected energy systems. At its core, this strategy emphasises closer coordination and information sharing among stakeholders, which is critical for the renewable energy sector, where assets and systems are spread across vast geographic areas.  

Germany has recognised the need for an integrated approach to protecting its critical infrastructure, including renewable energy sources. The strategy fosters strong partnerships between government bodies, energy providers, and cybersecurity experts, ensuring a cohesive response to potential cyber threats. This unified approach allows for the rapid dissemination of threat intelligence and best practices, enhancing the overall security posture of the entire sector.  

Moreover, the German model advocates for using advanced cybersecurity technologies and standardised security protocols across all entities involved in the energy supply chain. Such standardisation is vital for maintaining security consistency and effectively managing the inherent vulnerabilities of decentralised systems. Implementing similar protocols across Europe could greatly mitigate the risks associated with the diverse and fragmented nature of renewable energy systems.  

Closer coordination also means developing mutual aid agreements that can be activated during a cyber crisis to provide immediate support and resources. This ensures that even in the event of a significant cyberattack, the impact on energy distribution and supply can be minimised, and system recovery can be expedited.   

At the same time, energy providers should also prioritise emerging advanced technologies like artificial intelligence. AI-driven solutions can provide a transformative approach to stress testing the security of Operational Technology (OT) systems. Such approaches can pave the way for a more resilient security infrastructure and bridge the gap between traditional cybersecurity measures and the dynamic requirements of modern energy systems.  

Leveraging artificial intelligence to enhance OT Security  

Implementing AI-driven security tools enables continuous monitoring and analysis of energy systems’ operational state. AI’s capacity to analyse vast amounts of data in real-time allows for the identification of subtle anomalies that could signify potential security threats long before they escalate into actual breaches.   

This proactive surveillance extends beyond threat detection to include predictive maintenance, where AI anticipates potential system failures and mitigates risks proactively. Such capabilities are crucial in maintaining the resilience and integrity of highly distributed and interconnected renewable energy systems.  

Furthermore, AI can automate complex processes for responding to detected threats, streamlining the decision-making process during high-stress incidents. Automated systems can initiate protective measures such as isolating affected systems or temporarily shutting down operations to prevent the spread of a cyberattack. This rapid response is vital in preserving the operational continuity of critical energy infrastructures, especially those that are geographically widespread and, therefore, more vulnerable to coordinated attacks across multiple locations.   

The use of AI also extends to improving the security of remote access points, a notable vulnerability in renewable energy systems. AI-enhanced authentication protocols can monitor and control access to networked devices and systems, ensuring that only authorised users and devices can interact with critical operational technology. This layer of security is enhanced by AI’s ability to learn and adapt to new security challenges, constantly updating its defensive strategies based on evolving threat landscapes.   

As Europe increases its reliance on renewable energy sources, the fusion of AI with existing cybersecurity measures can offer a robust defence mechanism, significantly boosting the sector’s resilience. This strategic integration secures the renewable energy infrastructure and ensures its sustainable growth and operation in an increasingly digital landscape.  

About the Author 

Andrew Lintell

Andrew Lintell is a transformational sales leader with over 20 years of cybersecurity experience. He has previously served as vice president of sales and Channel across companies including Firemon, Tufin, HID, Kaspersky, Microsoft and McAfee. At Claroty, Andrew’s main focus is on further establishing Claroty’s presence in the EMEA region amid rapidly growing demand for its industry-leading solutions by industrial, healthcare, commercial, and government enterprises. 

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of The World Financial Review.