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How to Choose Electric Moped

Electric Moped

The first thing those who want to buy a new electric moped at qeemoto pay attention to is its appearance. Nowadays, models with a modern design are gaining more and more popularity. They don’t have the extra wires that wrap around most of the steering wheel. All controls are assembled and presented in a minimalistic design.

Depending on your wishes, you can choose various colours. Plastic elements are made in bright colours (blue, orange), decorated with prints and other unusual images.

If the future owner prefers a retro style, they will definitely like the vintage design of:

  • SUN 1000;
  • Vespa;
  • Nova.

Many brands offer similar stylish electric mopeds that will make both men and women feel great at the wheel.

These vehicles are replacing conventional cars and scooters more often. Car owners switch to environmentally friendly mopeds that don’t require regular refuelling.

Maximum speed

Sunra Robo S allows a speed of 70 km/h on average. This is slightly higher than the admissible speed of driving within the city. Many people who are accustomed to driving fast, regardless of restrictions, often consider faster models that accelerate to 100 km/h. At this speed, it is convenient to move outside the city.

To go to work on an electric moped, you can purchase a scooter with a battery capacity of up to 4 thousand watts. You will drive at a comfortable speed within 40 km/h and quickly reach your office.

For those who like to drive, there are models with a battery capacity of up to 10 thousand watts. They can accelerate to 120 km/h and cost several times more than conventional mopeds. On such mopeds, you will be able to drive more than 100 km in complete silence. Don’t forget that the electric moped doesn’t make unnecessary sounds while driving, so traveling at high speeds will not cause inconvenience to others.


Naturally, you can drive a moped not only in the daytime. Therefore, the design of electric mopeds provides built-in headlights, which produce enough level of lighting. You can explore the design of the Sunra Robo-S with a large headlight and a U-shaped LED system.

To turn on the headlights, many people prefer to use a special app installed on their smartphones. With such a utility, you can study the state of your electric moped, its charge and other parameters necessary for the correct operation of the vehicle.


An electric moped can have a built-in or a removable battery. If you choose a model with a built-in battery, you will be able to fully use the power indicated in its documentation. The high battery capacity is what allows you to drive as long as possible without additional recharging.

If you prefer removable batteries, charging will be much easier. You will need to disconnect the battery and take it home to charge it. The charging time, regardless of the battery model, is within 5 hours. A full charge will be enough to cover a 100 km distance or more.

An easy way to find out how much your vehicle can travel is to look at the dashboard. It shows the basic information about the operation of the electric moped, the distance traveled and the time that the moped can travel without recharging. Similar data will be displayed on your smartphone if you use the special app.

6 Best Ways for Finding Your Best Personal Loan

Personal Loan

Money often costs too much.

Oh, what an irony! In this world where we reside, money isn’t everything, and yet, everything needs money. From the start to the end; from our birth- to our very death, it is vital to a fault!

Funds are known as the lifeblood of a business. It’s essential for a continuous flow originating from the acquisition of raw materials to the sale of finished products. Similarly, savings are the security for a household. They are quintessential during calamities. From the beginning of human life till the very end, this medium of exchange between people has its place reserved right in the center!

Time and again, imbalances occur. The difference between the poor and the rich becomes wide enough to build bridges, quite literally!

While one section remains saturated and well-fed, the other is still left to claw for their basic amenities.

When these funds fall scarce, people resort to loaning some banknotes either from formal or from informal sources. In desperate times, people are vulnerable and fall prey to exploitation quite often. To avoid that, we have curated a list of the 6 best ways for finding a fitting source for your best personal loan.

Without further ado, here we go:

1. Comparisons and Decisions

The more you learn, the more you earn!

First things first, strictly avoid borrowing from informal lenders. They exploit and harass the issuer with extremely high-interest rates. Additionally, with the lack of legal protection and a written agreement, the court of law also has its hands tied. They won’t be able to intervene in case of disagreements due to the lack of written deeds.

Secondly, always compare the different terms of lending from several different sources before settling on one. You must do your research regarding banks, non-banking finance companies, the current trends and conditions of the market, etc. before you seal a deal.

Lastly, several sites on the internet gather and compare offerings from multiple sources. Remember to do your due diligence.

2. Boost Your Credit Score

Your credit score decides your creditworthiness.

The first and foremost thing that is looked up in your profile is your credit score. When it comes to loaning out, this factor holds more weight than any other. Make sure that you haven’t credited large amounts of money. Stay on top of your interest payments and make sure you repay the amounts within the stipulated time periods. These pointers will surely improve your credit score.

Tip – A score over 700 or 750 makes you a suitable candidate and gives you an upper hand while negotiating the terms of the agreement.

3. Steer Clear of Debt Traps

When one loans an amount to get out of another loan, a vicious cycle of loans, interests, and stress is created. This is known as the debt trap. Entering several loan agreements to exit another situation is not a plausible way out.

Similarly, applying for too many loans in a short span of time reflects poorly on you. It gives off the impression that you are an individual who survives on credit, thus losing you some worthy points.

4. Focus on the Fine Print

The fine print is generally the place where all the extra obligations, manipulations, and charges are hidden. Always consider moneylenders who pay heed to your financial situation and factors in your risk profile while negotiating the terms of the agreement.

5. Pay Your Bills Punctually

Punctually paying bills prompts a positive response!

Staying on top of your expenses has a huge impact on your credit score. Not letting credit bills roll over to the next month and spending responsibly does wonders to your score. An intelligent spender and responsible individual is always a preferred prospect for lending.

6. Single Out Seasonal Offers

Festive periods mark a time for discounts, sales, and spending in almost every industry.

Likewise, several lending institutions offer limited time-period deals and discounts on personal loans making them as affordable as ever.

Advertisements, emails, and messages notify us about such offers, so, make sure to keep an eye out for them!

Over to you…

With these points as loans, here’s a point of interest for you – Money can’t buy happiness, but money can rent it. Make smart choices and you’ll have a great Return on Investment. May you possess a loan interest-less

Cybersecurity Risk Considerations in Financial Statements

Financial Savings

“ The safe way to double your money is to fold it over once and put it in your pocket”  – Kin Hubbard

This is a clever quote that talks about the importance of keeping money safe. People can keep their money safe in many ways. Some prefer to invest it in a bank while others have cash under their bed. There are even people that keep their money “safe” by simply spending it. You can’t lose what isn’t there in the first place.

Jokes aside, being financially free is quite a privilege that most people don’t get to enjoy. The road to being financially independent and free is riddled with traps and scams from beginning to end. 

One of the most common methods to achieving this privilege is constant monitoring and financial reporting.

A financial report lets you keep track of your money and the different assets you have. This gives you a good grasp of where your money is going. 

Whether you monitor your money through a modern computer program or a scuffed notebook, keeping financial statements safe is quite the responsibility.

Cybersecurity in Finance

Security is important no matter what field is being discussed; this is especially true when it comes to monetary matters. Most people have probably feared losing all of their savings to a hacker. 

One of the common threats to your security is a cyber breach. This can happen when hackers, scammers, or anyone with malicious intent, gets past your cybersecurity. 

Cyber attacks can come in many forms, all with their unique detrimental effects.

Before we discuss the traps you should be on the lookout for, we’ll mention one of the best upgrades to your security. This is so you don’t end up panicking when you read all the possible attacks on your wallet.

Professional Help

There is no better security than a professional team. This is because experience combined with skills is equal to you and your money being safe. There are hundreds of companies that offer protection as modern bodyguards would.

Whether you’re looking out for your company or your family, having a professional by your side will keep everyone safe. An example of a professional keeping people safe would be OT security ventures. 

OT ventures provide industrial control systems to protect companies and businesses from cyber-attacks. This is achieved by having on-site sensors that watch the entire process of production. 

These sensors watch out for indicators of corruption or failure. If such an indicator arises then the ICS shuts down the entire process to prevent any damage.

Having someone keep an eye on your money will help it to stay safe, they will probably be able to pay more attention to it. Having an eye on your assets, not just any eye but a trained eye that has sworn to keep your money, assets, and company safe.

Cybersecurity Risks in Financial Statements

Financial statements are records that mention your business, family, or even personal expenses. They reveal your activity in terms of money and offer all kinds of information. 

You will probably end up producing many of these statements for various purposes like tax deductions or maybe company reimbursements. Looking at your financial statements will also show you where you spend your money and how to save it.

As mentioned, the world is a dangerous place with all kinds of threats popping up from everywhere. To prevent you from being scammed, hacked, or even straight-up robbed; here are some of the risks that you should consider when it comes to handling financial statements.

1. Personal Information Leaks

Financial statements are records and with records comes information. Today, information is very valuable, specifically personal information. This can range from your name, address, personal contacts, or even your phone number.

In the wrong hands, your personal information can leave you vulnerable to identity theft, spam, and it can even put your peers at risk. Even a naughty child can create problems with your address, such as ordering something online and placing your address. 

2. Identity Theft

This was already mentioned but what is identity theft? This is when people pretend to be another person and exploit the resources, access, and information that the victim has. 

This can lead to anything from a random fast food delivery to your whole bank account being transferred to someone else’s possession.

Identity theft is often discussed with stolen credit cards and incredibly expensive purchases. Other than your funds, this attack leaves your business and family vulnerable.

Gaining your identity also leads to them gaining access to everything you have. An example might be restricted access to a company’s records like their client list or business secrets. Maybe, your identity gives them access to your family bank account or assets left in your name.

Identity theft is not a joke, and it should be taken seriously and carefully.

3. Frozen Accounts

Cyber attacks aren’t just about stealing money or data. Sometimes it’s all about causing trouble for a victim. Whether it be a competitor or someone with a vengeance. If your financial records fall into the wrong hands you can end up with a whole financial car wreck.

If you can react accordingly and stop these “wrong hands” from stealing or using your money, there is still the mess left behind. Frozen accounts are wallets that have money in them but they can’t be moved or used, hence the term frozen. 

You may want to learn more about frozen accounts and how to prevent or handle them.

Sure, it is a great feeling when hackers can’t use your money, but now you can’t either. For whatever reasons these cyber terrorists had, you are left with an account that has frozen money. It creates an entire inconvenience that may take months to resolve.

Key Takeaways

This is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to cybersecurity in terms of financial records. Money may not be able to buy happiness but it is an incredibly valuable resource that needs security. Protection from all kinds of attacks that may leave you with no money or even useless money. 

Reacting to a drastic situation such as hacking or information leaks is an important life skill. At the same time, however, preparing for such situations is just as important. Having protocols or even a professional back you up beforehand will go a long way.

Make sure that you aren’t spending all of your time daydreaming about how to spend or earn money. Spend a little bit of time contemplating how to keep that money safe.

STEAM: Everything You Need to Know

STEM Students

STEAM refers to an abbreviation that stands for Science, Technology, Art, Engineering, and Math. The applied learning method of STEM education is extended into STEAM education to grant students a more rounded appreciation of the world. There’s now an important and strong intersection between STEM subjects and the arts. Introducing the fifth element helps students demonstrate more creativity in their approach to problem-solving, utilizing the innovative and inventive skills acquired by studying the arts to link various fields.

Integrating STEAM learning into educational programs offers several benefits. Independent thinking: In a STEAM curriculum, students need to work in learning environments that offer minimal risk and strengthen the idea that failures and making mistakes can be productive. Along the way, students go at their own skill level and pace. They can challenge themselves by working with complicated concepts or spend time with beginning foundations.

Interdisciplinary approach: A cross-disciplinary emphasis drives a STEAM-centered education, exposing students to multiple, lateral ways of thinking. Subjects like science and tech don’t carry more value than the arts, but all subjects are equally presented in relationship with each other. With this philosophy, learners can view the unique benefits of each discipline. It teaches learners that they aren’t limited to one specific subject or have to pick between an artistic or technical topic. Their expertise can be developed through a combination of these.

Project-based, goal-oriented learning: A key feature of STEAM programs is project-based, hands-on learning. Students work on projects specific to the issues that appeal to them. Learners decide on a goal and choose the skills that are required to achieve it, which lets them explore and experiment with different methods. The addition of the artistic component makes complicated topics such as programming and math less mentally intimidating and more approachable.

Creative problem-solving skills: Creative problem-solving is one of the coveted skills in the job market. Creativity may seem like a skill that instinctually comes to certain individuals, but it can be nurtured through proper STEAM education. Inspiring creative, open-ended exploration serves as a kind of productive inquiry and play. The absence of rigidly defined rules to follow motivates students to think around a given problem, demonstrate adaptive critical thinking, and consider the impacts generated by changing different variables. Without having to depend on a fixed procedure, students hone their abilities to evaluate a large set of details and comprehend that problem-solving models may be flexible.

5 Important Reasons Why You Should Have Insurance for Your Static Caravan


It’s hard to ignore that more people choose to holiday at home or opt for a static caravan because of the affordable price tag. Static caravan insurance is essential because it can put your mind at ease, especially if you have already spent an arm and a leg on the purchase itself. It’s therefore vital to have the policy to ensure that you protect your caravan. Here are the benefits of having insurance for your static caravan.

1. Insurance Policy May Offer Financial Help

Comprehensive insurance for static caravans can protect you against the financial consequences of accidents, fire, thefts, and vandalism. This type of insurance offers financial help if your caravan or its contents are damaged, stolen, or destroyed because of a sudden event that was not your fault. 

Many static caravan insurance policies may offer financial help with repairs or replacing your static caravan in case of theft, vandalized, damaged in a storm, suffers fire damage, or has an accident. These are not provided automatically under your insurance policy, but the underwriter has it designed to cover the unexpected costs that can arise when an item is damaged or stolen. Many static caravan insurance customers had reported that their policy had helped them when in need of financial help. You can click here for more information about your static caravan insurance.

2. A Requirement for Some Camp Sites

Many parks will only allow a caravan to pitch on their site if it is fully insured; many will ask to see a certificate before allowing a Caravan on the pitch. Static Caravan Insurance is a legal requirement for some campsites and offers protection from damage caused by storms and flooding plus repairs of up to £2500, which may be crucial following a break-in or attempted theft.

If your caravan park doesn’t have a minimum requirement for insurance, the park owners may not allow you to pitch up at their site. However, the higher the value of your caravan, the more likely you will be required to have full insurance.

3. Offers Peace of Mind for Absentee Owners

It’s normal to worry about your caravan and its contents when you can’t be there to look after it. Fortunately, static caravan insurance cover helps you maintain peace of mind. Static caravan insurance can help you protect yourself against risks, such as vandalism or fire, that can result in costly repairs. It also offers the satisfaction of knowing that if something goes wrong while your caravan is left unattended, your static caravan insurance will cover any repair costs.

Static caravan insurance offers peace of mind and protection to the grower and summer homeowners who often leave their caravan behind when they move off-site, covering you for a range of incidents such as accidental damage, theft, storm, and smoke damage.

4. Covers Damages by Hirers

Static caravan insurance is very popular with owners who are willing to rent their caravan out during the summer months or use it for an annual family trip away. It’s all very well renting out your static caravan when you’re not using it, but what happens if something goes wrong? 

Static caravan insurance is a helpful way to cover the damage your holiday home could incur from hirers. The insurance can be beneficial if you’re renting out your static caravan during warmer months, as most owners struggle to find adequate cover within their home insurance policy for their holiday homes.

When you are hiring your caravan out to others, the last thing you want is the added stress of making sure they have adequate cover for damage to your property. Static Caravan Insurance helps you relax, knowing that if something goes wrong, you aren’t liable for any costs – protecting your contents and total liability.

5. Offers Cover for Public Liability

A caravan is not a regular household item. It is a large and heavy piece of specialist equipment that could prove dangerous if it were to roll away on its own. Cover for public liability offered by static caravan insurance protects those who may incur injuries as a result of your caravan’s presence.

Cover for public liability is essential. Suppose you upset someone, and they choose to make a personal injury claim against your organization. In that case, Public liability insurance will help cover the cost of compensation and the legal fees involved.


Static Caravan Insurance provides the extra security you desire to experience. Your new policy will cover your static caravan, its contents, and motorhome, fully comprehensive – helping to cover the cost of repairing or replacing damaged or stolen property up to the value stated on the policy. When purchasing a new static caravan insurance policy, you will be able to select specific extra features, such as cover for glass breakage and personal possessions.

Modern Investment Opportunities for the Digital Generation

Modern Investment

Investing isn’t just something for older people who have already got a lot of money in the bank. People of all ages can try to invest as long as they have a safety net to protect them. Like anything else, the advance of technology is affecting the investment world, and many people are interested in the new asset types and investment models emerging. One of the trends that have emerged in recent years is the use of robo advisors to provide automated investment advice and management. Additionally, there are multiple types of investment available for people to explore.


Cryptocurrencies are, by now, not exactly a new thing. However, they are still something that many people can struggle to understand. They are essentially digital currencies that can be used anywhere in the world instead of physical currencies, which are typically attached to one or more countries. Bitcoin is the most well-known cryptocurrency, but there are multiple other options for people interested in cryptocurrency. These include Ethereum, Tether, Cardano, and Binance Coin. Cryptocurrencies use blockchain technology to create secure records of transactions that are also private. Some countries are even starting to recognize Bitcoin and other digital currencies as legal tender.

In addition to simply buying cryptocurrencies as an investment, there are also various other ways to invest in crypto. There are many interesting ways to invest in digital currencies, such as gold-backed cryptocurrency, which offers a hybrid cryptocurrency that is backed by physical gold. Cryptocurrencies can be used to invest in established investment types, from real estate to ETFs. The various cryptocurrency options on offer give a broad range of investment choices for those who may wish to look beyond traditional investment options. Of course, it’s always important to assess the level of risk involved in investing in cryptocurrencies too.


Perhaps for some, investing in cryptocurrencies is starting to get a little old hat. Fortunately, there are other ways to make use of blockchain technology to find new ways to make investments. One of the investment options that people are starting to explore is NFTs or non-fungible tokens. An NFT is a token that essentially represents ownership of an asset. That asset can be physical or digital, but it is most likely to be a digital asset – at least, for now. NFTs are being used by all kinds of people but were first used by digital artists to sell ownership of their work. For example, an NFT might convey ownership of a GIF. Although the GIF itself could be copied and shared, the owner of the NFT has ownership, similar to having the original print or copy of a painting or book.

NFTs are used by artists, writers, musicians, and more. When an NFT is purchased, it could give the buyer anything from a digital copy of a book or album to tickets to a concert. A record is created on the blockchain when the NFT is sold or when it’s resold to someone else. NFTs are still in their early stages, but they have already proven to be popular with some big names in music, the arts, and beyond.

Performing Rights Royalties

NFTs aren’t the only option for people who want to invest in music. Another possibility is investing in music royalties, which is possible through Royalty Exchange. This site is an online auction platform and marketplace where owners of royalties and investors can buy and sell. Creators get funding for their projects, while investors can build a portfolio of royalties that help them to earn money. Royalty Exchange says that investors earn an average of at 10% yield or more. It’s another way for investors to put their money into digital assets that can earn them an income.

The platform has also added the option for artists to use NFTs to make money from their music. They encourage musicians to put their work in front of “newly-minted crypto millionaires” who want to spend their money on assets such as NFTs and the music they can represent. Investors can use the cryptocurrency by investing in music that could increase in value and turn cryptocurrency that isn’t doing anything into real assets.

Crowdfunding and Crowdinvesting

Crowdfunding and crowd investing offer another way for investors to put their money into something a little more modern. These investment and funding models have been around for a while now, but they still offer an interesting option for investors who are exploring their options. While crowdfunding is sometimes used for charitable purposes when people want to collect donations, it can also be an option that benefits both the fundraiser and the investor. Investors may receive various things in return for their investment, including shares in the company and other ways to recoup their investment, and more.

Peer-to-Peer Loans

Peer-to-peer loans involve lending money to others, which the investor then gets back with interest. It offers an alternative way for people to borrow money without going to banks or other big lenders. An investor can contribute all of the money that someone is looking for or perhaps part of it, and then should make a return on their investment when it’s paid back. Of course, there is a risk, just like there is with all types of investment. The borrower may not pay back what they have borrowed, and collecting it could prove to be difficult.


The idea of investing in collectible items is definitely not new, but it’s always beneficial to keep up with the latest trends in collectibles. What do people feel is going to be the next big thing? What has a proven record of increasing in value, and what could be worth gambling on to see if it increases in value and desirability in the future? Some of the most collectible items today include things like sneakers. And perhaps digital assets such as NFTs could become collectible too.

These modern investment opportunities allow investors to explore a range of options and create a diverse portfolio.

Philippines: From Peaceful, Nuclear-Free ASEAN to Battle-Ready Indo-Pacific?


By Dr. Dan Steinbock

As the Duterte era is gradually ending, new arms races and nuclear proliferation cast a dark shadow over Southeast Asia. The Philippines may be sleepwalking into military-nuclear entanglements.

According to the new trilateral security pact (AUKUS) between the US, the UK and Australia, Washington and London will “help” Canberra to develop and deploy nuclear-powered submarines.

The highly controversial $66 billion deal is expected to trigger arms races and nuclear proliferation in Asia. It violates the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (SEANWFZ, 1995), effective since 1997. It would seem to violate the Philippine Constitution. And it is strongly opposed by China.

Yet, right after the AUKUS, when ASEAN began to build consensus on the nuclear pact, Philippine foreign affairs secretary Teodoro Locsin Jr. welcomed the pact.      

Philippine policies, ASEAN concerns   

According to Locsin, the Philippines “welcomes Australia’s decision to establish” the AUKUS. And he added: “ASEAN member states, singly and collectively, do not possess the military wherewithal to maintain peace and security in Southeast Asia.”

According to this logic, ASEAN is irrelevant in matters of regional peace and security and therefore each ASEAN nation should align with one or another major military power, irrespective of collective consequences.

Such logic shuns and could derail, inadvertently, or purposefully, the ongoing work by the ASEAN and China on the Code of Conduct (COC) for the South China Sea by 2022. Most importantly, the logic opens the door to the nuclearization of the region, at the expense of the SEANWFZ treaty and the aspirations of the ASEAN community. That’s why Malaysia’s veteran statesman Mahathir Mohamad blasted the AUKUS statement: “You have escalated the threat.”

The first reaction of both Malaysia and Indonesia was to warn of an impending arms race unleashed by such a pact. Australia’s nuclear decision prompted Indonesian foreign ministry’s official note that it was “deeply concerned over the continuing arms race and power projection in the region”.

So, why did Locsin choose to break ranks with the ASEAN?

ADRi: “We will make China the issue of 2022”

The plan to drag the Philippines into the Indo Pacific containment front against China seems to have evolved in the mid-2010s, but fell apart with the Duterte election triumph and the meltdown of the Liberal Party (LP).

To avoid a déjà vu, former foreign affairs secretary Albert Del Rosario recently called on the Philippines to choose a leader who will reverse President Duterte’s policy of “loving and embracing” China after the “22 polls.”

In this quest, a key supportive role belongs to the Stratbase Albert del Rosario Institute (ADRi), embedded with US business and national security interests. Through its board members and executives, Rosario’s ADRi is joined with its parent, Stratbase, an “advisory and research consultancy,” and Bower Group Asia led by Ernest Z. Bower IV. Stratbase is the Philippine partner of Bower Group Asia.

Until the 2000s, Bower led US-ASEAN Business Council. He is ADRi’s board member and Southeast Asia advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), a leading US think-tank close to State Department, Pentagon, defense contractors, and Wall Street.

The maritime dispute with China, said ADRi’s President Victor Manhit, is what “we will make an issue in the 2022 elections.” Due to interlocking leaderships, Manhit himself heads Stratbase and Bower Asia Group’s Philippine branch.

The goals go back to the Benigno Aquino III government (2010-16).

Conflicts of interest, military entanglements

Portrayed as a diplomat, the US-educated del Rosario is a business executive and the wealthiest one in the Aquino government. Officially, his business ties were suspended during his government activities, and yet…

In February 2010, Philippine government granted Forum Energy, the partner of Philex Mining, the right to explore oil and gas in Reed Bank. At the time, del Rosario served as director of Philex, led by Manuel V. Pangilingan, the CEO of First Pacific. After his appointment to serve as acting Foreign Affairs Secretary in February 2011, del Rosario reportedly left the Philex board.

Two years later, the Department of Energy deferred to the Department of Foreign Affairs the decision to grant permits for exploring and mining at the Reed Bank, due to maritime disputes. Reportedly, that gave del Rosario, as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, effective authority to influence concessions on Reed Bank. In 2013, too, the Aquino government filed its ICC arbitration case on South China Sea against China. In mid-2016, right before the release of the ICC decision on the South China Sea, Pangilinan re-appointed del Rosario to serve as a director of First Pacific.

The Reed Bank has been estimated to hold up to 5.4 billion barrels of oil and 55.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

After its arbitration case against China, the Aquino government signed its Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) with the US. That allowed del Rosario and president Aquino to re-open the country to U.S. military, ships, and planes.

That’s also when efforts began to deepen US ties vis-a-vis Stratbase ADRi, in parallel with the Asian Maritime Transparency Initiative (AMTI), at the CSIS. In May 2015, the CSIS/AMTI launched a 3-year U.S.-Philippines Strategic Initiative in Washington, with speeches by del Rosario, and William Cohen, former US defense secretary.

Failed dreams, old new nuclearization

These dreams crumbled with the 2016 election loss by ex-Wall Street investment banker Mar Roxas and his liberals, del Rosario’s core constituency. And as Hillary Clinton failed to win the US presidency, Trump buried president Obama’s Trans-Pacific trade deal, while questioning US alliances; the twin cornerstones of del Rosario’s bilateral initiative.

That’s why Rosario’s ADRi is a hurry today. It wants a president who will seal a tight US-Philippine military alliance and can join the country in the Indo-Pacific front.

And yet, the AUKUS pact does contribute to the ongoing arms races in Southeast Asia. It will foster nuclear proliferation in the region. It violates the goals of the nuclear-free Southeast Asia treaty. It is not in line with the Philippine constitution.

President Duterte has pledged to end the bilateral military deal with Washington if US nuclear weapons are found in the Philippines. But his term will end by next summer.

Obviously, Australia, US and UK seek to calm ASEAN members, arguing that nuclear weapons are not really for military purposes. But since 1945, assurances have not been reliable in nuclear matters.

During the Cold War, US nuclear warheads were secretly stockpiled in the Philippines. Moreover, in the 1965 Philippine Sea A-4 crash, a US Skyhawk attack aircraft fell into the sea off Japan. Coming from US Naval Base in Subic Bay, it was carrying a nuclear weapon, with 80 times the blast power of the Hiroshima explosion.

It wasn’t until 1989 that Pentagon disclosed the loss of the 1-megaton hydrogen bomb.

New policy? Two policies? No policy? 

Today, the destructive power of these weapons is far greater, as stressed by the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN). In January, Philippines ratified the ICAN’s legally-binding Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons [TPNW]. On May 19, Locsin stated that the Philippines welcomes the AUKUS nuclear pact (see Figure).

One country, two nuclear policies?


May 19, 2021: Locsin stated officially that “the Philippines welcomes Australia’s decision to establish an enhanced trilateral security partnership with the United States primarily and the United Kingdom.” (DFA)

May 20, 2021: Locsin officially “reaffirmed the Philippines’ principled policy and commitment towards the complete prohibition of nuclear weapons, as enshrined in the relevant provisions of the Philippine Constitution, and the [TPNW]Treaty.” (DFA)

Only a day later, Locsin reaffirmed the Philippines’ “principled policy and commitment towards the complete prohibition of nuclear weapons, as enshrined in the relevant provisions of the Philippine Constitution, and the Treaty.”

The Philippines’ principles policy is crystal clear: The country definitely welcomes nuclear proliferation in Southeast Asia. And the country is absolutely committed against nuclear-free Southeast Asia.

Where will that “principled policy and commitment” take us after the 2022 election?

About the Author

Dr. Dan Steinbock

Dr. Dan Steinbock is an internationally recognized strategist of the multipolar world and the founder of Difference Group. He has served at the India, China and America Institute (USA), Shanghai Institutes for International Studies (China) and the EU Center (Singapore). For more, see https://www.differencegroup.net

Overcoming Debts: Use Debt Consolidation Plans Singapore To Enjoy Unique Benefits

Debt Consolidation Plan

Have you also faced a financial crisis in the past two years due to covid? Did you also take debt to relieve yourself from the financial crisis? But now you have found yourself indebted. Here is an article on Overcoming debts: Use debt consolidation plans Singapore to enjoy unique psychological benefits.

Debt consolidation means taking alone to repay multiple small loans. It’s the refinancing of your loans. It’s the smart way to get rid of unwanted burdens. It helps you keeping your mind at peace and giving you financial and mental freedom. This website helps you in getting the best debt consolidation plan for yourself in Singapore.

What Is Debt Consolidation?

Debt consolidation refers to debt financing. It means you take a loan to pay off other loans. Debt consolidation means you pay off all your other loans to deal with the one you have taken. Debt consolidation is beneficial if you have multiple small debts and you want to get rid of them.

Debt Consolidation In Singapore:

If you want to qualify for debt consolidation in Singapore, you need to have:

  • Financial stability
  • Proof of income
  • Good credit score

The Benefit Of Taking A Debt Consolidation

The most important advantage of debt consolidation is that it minimizes the interest rate. It means that the new loan will have a lower interest rate than all the other loans combined. Thus it helps you in faster-paying back. It helps you in increasing your score.

Psychological Advantages Of Debt Consolidation.`

Although debt consolidation has many advantages and its psychological ones are here to relax you out.

Relaxes You!

Once you convert all your small debt into a single one, it will relax you. Apart from paying off multiple debts quickly, the glow of finally letting this burden off your head is pleasantly satisfying. In addition, debt consolidation loosens your shoulders because you will only linger with one loan that will be easy to pay back. It will let you live best free once you pay back all the debt consolidation money.

No Debts Left!

Multiple debts can make you anxious, depressed socially insecure. When you replace all your multiple debts with one single one, it consoles you and relaxes you. A debt consolidation plan makes sure you are not left with any unpaid debt behind, and there is nothing left on you. Debt consolidation will make you feel secure, confident, and satisfied in life.

Mind At Ease!

Debt consolidation eases your mind. It removes constant overwhelming feelings from your life. Multiple debts are like hanging swords, and debt consolidation works like a charm in your life. It helps you because rather than dealing with many, you only have to deal with one creditor. It helps you with better productivity and opens up your mind giving you good mental and physical health.

Things You Should Keep In Mind While Going For Debt Consolidation!

  • Debt consolidation is the pathway to financial freedom, so you should select the one with:
  • Have better terms and condition
  • Have low-interest rates
  • No hidden charges

Best Debt Consolidation In Singapore

The best is to work with this website, a comparison site giving you multiple options and freedom to select. They help you in finding the best debt consolidation plan.

Don’t let debt take away your mental and physical health. Rush today to this website and choose the right debt consolidation plan to secure a future free from financial debts.

Securing Your Business Premises

Securing Your Business Premises

As a business, you constantly face security scares related to vandalism, theft, and arson. These are serious safety issues that require investment in the right Security Services Perth to help with your security systems to keep your valuables safe. It could be securing the cash, inventory, or even confidential data your business relies on for operations.

Having adequate and reliable security systems can help in reducing any form of risk on these valuables. More so, it can significantly reduce the risk of crime-related activities on your property and give you a breathing space. This article talks about business safety and how you can protect and secure your business premises from security threats. Read on!

1. Train Your Employees on Safety Protocols

Most security compromises occur when your employees don’t undergo enough workplace safety training. The lack of this knowledge means they might not understand the way forward if there’s a security breach. Some may even accidentally breach policies and expose the premises to a threat.

If you want to prevent this, ensure all your employees know the crucial security points and all the basics regarding their safety. Start by displaying information around the premises to ensure everyone is on the same page. In case of any significant security changes, ensure every employee is fully updated and understands how things will be working from now on.

2. Have an Access Control System in Place

An access control system is an upfront investment that’ll serve your security needs just as you want. It’s most favorable if you’re going to replace the standard lock system for business premises access. The system is otherwise known as keyless entry technology.

These keyless entry systems can significantly increase your security in many ways. First, it will reduce the costs of replacing your key locks every time you encounter a security scare. The system is also highly secure as it works based on authorization alone. Common choices for an access control system include;

  • Key fobs or cards
  • Biometric technology
  • Access control card readers

3. Install a CCTV system

CCTV systems are still one of the highly effective ways of preventing theft on business premises. The presence of these cameras alone is enough to scare thieves and keep them off your business premises. Even for burglars or rogue employees who plan and carry out calculated robberies, security cameras still provide an obstacle they may want to avoid.

When resorting to CCTV cameras, consider those that support remote viewing or motion detecting. They effectively sense and record any form of theft, even from the most intelligent thieves around. The collected footage makes it easy to find the thieves and can also be used as evidence whenever needed in a criminal proceeding.

Final Thought

Handling security on the premises is often a challenging task for any business. You are never sure whether the measures put in place are enough to combat any security breach and protect your business property. However, enforcing security measures using the above-shared tips is always better than cure. It will afford you peace of mind even as you seek to implement stronger measures.

Sovereigns in the Courtroom: Is the U.S. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act the Golden Key?

U.S. Foreign Sovereign Immunities act

By Kiran Nasir Gore and Charles H. Camp

How can a foreign sovereign be brought into an American courtroom to answer for its bad acts? This article discusses the U.S. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, including brief historical context, opportunities, and the latest developments. In sum, the FSIA remains a powerful tool to be wielded by aggrieved litigants, guided by expert legal advisers, when the foreign State acts more like a private player than a sovereign.  


In February of this year, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Germany v. Philipp,[i] a Holocaust expropriation case filed against the Republic of Germany for claims concerning the return of Medieval art stolen by the Nazis.

The case was pursued under the U.S. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976 (FSIA), the primary means to bring a lawsuit against a foreign sovereign or its agencies and instrumentalities.[ii] In short, the FSIA provides a list of circumstances where a sovereign can be compelled to litigate a dispute in American courts, but as the Philipp case demonstrates, there remain fuzzy gray areas within those confines which necessitate expert advice from counsel well-versed in the FSIA.

In Philipp, Chief Justice Roberts wrote for a unanimous bench and held that the FSIA’s expropriation exception, which permits suit for cases involving “rights in property taken in violation of international law,” does not extend to a sovereign’s taking of the property of its own nationals. The justices did not address the second question presented—whether a court may decline jurisdiction on grounds of international comity—leaving the law on international comity abstention in confusion for now. On the same day, the Supreme Court decided a companion case, Hungary v. Simon,[iii] concerning the return of personal property stolen from Holocaust survivors. That case only raised the comity question and was vacated and remanded to the lower court for reconsideration in light of the Supreme Court’s decision in Philipp.

Both cases were closely watched by advocates for restorative justice, who hoped that American courts could provide a forum to litigate against sovereigns to hold them liable for these past bad acts. While we cannot predict whether, how, or where that justice could unfold in the future, as of now, the FSIA is the only avenue in the United States to remove a sovereign’s immunity from liability.

This pair of cases is not the only recent big headline for the FSIA. Since spring of 2020, numerous private lawsuits have been filed all over the U.S., including some class actions, seeking damages arising from alleged governmental misconduct in concealing or failing to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[iv] Each of these cases invoked the FSIA to establish that American courts had jurisdiction. Most legal commentators were skeptical of this strategy and none of these cases have yet resulted in a positive outcome.

In June 2020, the Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing to explore a different angle. Its hearing on “The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, Coronavirus, and Addressing China’s Culpability” sought to consider whether Congress should amend the FSIA to expand its scope and permit lawsuits like the ones seeking to hold China responsible for its alleged bad acts relating to the spread of COVID-19.[v] Since then, there has not been any meaningful progress on this initiative following the January 2021 change in Presidential administration.

At the very least, collectively, these outcomes demonstrate the existence of a toolkit that well-advised litigants can employ as they seek restorative justice against sovereigns in American courtrooms. This article provides brief historical context, outlines opportunities, and offers useful guidance. 

The FSIA: Origins and Context

For more than 150 years after the founding of the United States, sovereigns were almost entirely exempt from the jurisdiction of U.S. courts as a matter of comity (i.e., respect for the sovereignty of other nations). This was not a unique proposition. It is customary international law that one foreign State is immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of another foreign State.

But in the early-to-mid twentieth century, the U.S. government began to join other States in recognizing that this “absolute” immunity was inappropriate in certain cases, especially those in which a State was behaving less like a sovereign and more like a private actor. This development coincided with various global developments, including that governments began to conduct commercial activities between themselves and with private actors on an increasingly frequent basis. In these cases, complete sovereign immunity gave State governments an unfair advantage in commercial dealings.

Thus, in 1952, the U.S. State Department began informing federal courts that the immunity of foreign States was limited or “restricted” to situations where the foreign government engages in governmental functions. However, the State Department’s determinations were inconsistent and occasionally colored by political considerations. In 1976, U.S. Congress addressed these problems with enactment of the FSIA.[vi] The FSIA was signed into law by U.S. President Gerald Ford and standardized new, “restrictive” rules of immunity and assigned responsibility for determining immunity to U.S. federal courts.

Except where an exception to immunity exists under the FSIA, sovereigns and certain State agencies and companies are presumptively immune from court jurisdiction under the FSIA, meaning that American courts generally cannot hear cases brought against them.

But the FSIA has three significant exceptions that are worth highlighting: (1) the commercial activity exception, (2) the non-commercial tort exception, and (3) the expropriation exception.[vii] Each exception has been hotly litigated and each carries significant consequences. If a litigant successfully establishes that one of these exceptions applies to a State, its sovereign immunity falls away and an American court can adjudge the sovereign’s liability for the alleged bad acts.

The Commercial Activity Exception

It is unsurprising that the FSIA’s commercial activity exception is often invoked by litigants. Modern States conduct a variety of commercial non-sovereign activities through their State-owned enterprises. For example, in 2019, the World Bank observed that China’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) projects around the world have been driven predominantly by China’s State-owned banks and State-owned enterprises.[viii]

The commercial activity exception applies in lawsuits that are based upon (1) “a commercial activity carried on in the United States by a foreign state;” (2) “an act performed in the United States in connection with a commercial activity of the foreign state elsewhere;” or (3) “an act outside the territory of the United States in connection with a commercial activity of the foreign state elsewhere and that act causes a direct effect in the United States.”[ix] Each of provides a separate ground for a court to exercise its jurisdiction over the sovereign. Importantly, regardless of which ground applies, the court must question whether the activity of the foreign state is “commercial,” rather than “sovereign,” in nature, and also whether the plaintiff’s claim is “based upon” that act.[x] The FSIA defines “commercial activity” as either “a regular course of commercial conduct” or “a particular commercial transaction or act,” but it also says that courts must look to the nature of the activity rather than its purpose.[xi] That is to say, regardless of the sovereign’s motive, a court must determine whether its conduct is the type of conduct typically engaged in by private players.

In Republic of Argentina v. Weltover, Inc., the Supreme Court determined that the commercial activity exception applied where Argentina had failed to pay bonds, the place designated for payment of its bonds was New York, and Argentina’s issuance of bonds in an attempt to pay its debt was an activity in which private actors could also partake.[xii] Similarly, in De Cespel v. Republic of Hungary, a federal district court applied the commercial activity exception to Hungary in a case alleging breach of a bailment agreement by Hungary.[xiii] This was a commercial activity because “a bailment is a form of contract, and a foreign state’s repudiation of a contract is precisely the type of activity in which a ‘private player within the market’ engages.”[xiv]

The Non-Commercial Tort Exception

While the FSIA’s non-commercial tort exception was intended by its drafters to cover “primarily… traffic accidents,” the final text is more general and covers “all tort actions for money damages.”[xv] Examples include “claims for personal injury or death, or for damage to or loss of property caused by tortious act or omission of a foreign state or its officials or employees, acting within the scope of their authority.”[xvi] All claims must be based upon at least one complete tort committed within the United States,[xvii] and this exception only deals “with the immunity of foreign states and not its diplomatic or consular representatives.”[xviii]

This creates an important tool for litigants seeking to hold a State responsible for bad acts in the United States. In USAA Casualty Insurance Co. v. Permanent Mission of the Republic of Nambia, for example, the non-commercial torts exception conferred a New York court with jurisdiction over plaintiffs’ claims against the Nambia’s diplomatic Mission.[xix] In that case, the Mission’s contractors had violated New York building code laws, the Mission had a duty to ensure that such laws were complied with, and its failure resulted in substantial damage to adjoining property. [xx]

The Expropriation Exception

The FSIA was carefully drafted, and expressly designed, to not modify the existing American act of state doctrine, which prevents the U.S. judiciary from examining the validity of a foreign government taking, a concept also known as “expropriation,” within its own territory from its own national.[xxi] This is the same doctrine that the Philipp plaintiffs had hoped the Supreme Court would reconsider.[xxii] They argued that, despite involving a domestic taking, the expropriation exception applied because the conduct violated international law generally, in this case, international human rights law.

While the Supreme Court did not accept this creative formulation, this does not mean the expropriation exception is not a useful tool. In Altmann v. Republic of Austria, in stark contrast from the outcome in Philipp, an Austrian-born U.S. national was able to proceed with a lawsuit against Austria and “an art gallery that was an instrumentality of the Republic” when “her father’s will bequeathed to her certain valuable paintings which were confiscated by the Nazis during World War II and subsequently expropriated by Austria.”[xxiii] Key facts considered by Ninth Circuit included its determination that the paintings were stolen and sold for personal gain by Austria while targeting a Czech family, i.e. foreigners, not its own nationals.[xxiv]

Similarly, in Siderman de Blake v. Republic of Argentina, plaintiffs were able to establish jurisdiction under the FSIA where plaintiff was a U.S. citizen and a company owned by plaintiff was seized by Argentine officials without compensation, and the company was later converted into an agency of the State.[xxv]

FSIA: Powerful Tool or Dull Substitute?

In general, the modern contours of the FSIA accord with a “restrictive” theory of foreign sovereign immunity. This is to say, the immunity exists but remains subject to key exceptions, which are largely triggered where the sovereign acts less like a sovereign and more like a private player. Aggrieved litigants with claims against sovereigns are recommended to actively seek timely expert legal advice to determine whether the FSIA can be a powerful tool to hold a sovereign or its agencies and instrumentalities liable for their bad acts.

About the Authors

Charles H. Camp

Charles H. Camp is an international lawyer with over thirty years of experience representing foreign and domestic clients in international litigation, arbitration, negotiation, and international debt recovery, including various actions brought under the FSIA. In 2001, Mr. Camp opened the Law Offices of Charles H. Camp, P.C. in Washington, D.C. to focus on effective, personalized representation in complex, international matters. Mr. Camp teaches international negotiations at the George Washington University Law School.

Kiran Nasir Gore

Kiran Nasir Gore is Counsel at the Law Offices of Charles H. Camp, P.C. Her expertise is in international dispute resolution, including advocacy before U.S. courts, commercial and investment arbitration tribunals, and investigative authorities. She also draws on her professional experiences as an educator at the George Washington University Law School and New York University’s Global Study Center in Washington, D.C.


  • [i] Federal Republic of Germany et al. v. Philipp et al., U.S. S. Ct. No. 19-351 (Feb. 3, 2021).
  • [ii] Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of l976, Pub. L. 94-583, 90 Stat. 289l, 28 U.S.C. Sec. l330, l332(a), l39l(f) and l60l-l6ll (collectively, the ‘FSIA’).
  • [iii] Republic of Hungary et al. v. Simon, et al., U.S. S. Ct. No. 18-1447 (Feb. 3, 2021).
  • [iv] See Chimène Keitner, Testimony on the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, Coronavirus, and Addressing China’s Culpability, HARV. NAT’L SEC. J. ONLINE (Feb. 23, 2021), https://harvardnsj.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2021/02/Keitner_The-ForeignSovereign-Immunities-Act-Coronavirus-and-Addressing-Chinas-Culpability-Part-I.pdf. In an Annex, current as of February 2021, Professor Keitner indexes all known such cases.
  • [v] Full Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing, “The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, Coronavirus, and Addressing China’s Culpability” (June 23, 2020). A video of the hearing is available here: https://www.judiciary.senate.gov/meetings/the-foreign-sovereign-immunities-act-coronavirus-and-addressing-chinas-culpability.
  • [vi] 28 U.S.C. §§ 1330, 1332, 1391(f), 1441(d), and 1602–1611.
  • [vii] Other important exceptions include the waiver exception and the terrorism exception. See FSIA, 28 U.S.C. § 1605(a)(1) and 28 U.S.C. § 1607(a).
  • [viii] Belt and Road Economics: Opportunities and Risks of Transport Corridors (World Bank, 2019), p. 80, available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/regional-integration/publication/belt-and-road-economics-opportunities-and-risks-of-transport-corridors.
  • [ix] FSIA, 28 U.S. Code § 1605(a)(2).
  • [x] Id.
  • [xi] Id., 28 U.S.C. § 1603(d).
  • [xii] 504 U.S. 607, 608 (1992).
  • [xiii] 714 F.3d 591 (D.C. Cir. 2013).
  • [xiv] Id. at 599.
  • [xv] S. Rep. No. 94-1310, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Sept. 27 (legislative day, Sept. 24), 1976 at 20.
  • [xvi] Id.
  • [xvii] See e.g., Olsen v. Government of Mexico, 729 F.2d 641, 646 (9th Cir. 1984)
  • [xviii] S. Rep. No. 94-1310, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Sept. 27 (legislative day, Sept. 24), 1976 at 20.
  • [xix] 681 F.3d 103 (2d Cir. 2012).
  • [xx] Id. at 104.
  • [xxi]Jurisdiction of U.S. Courts in Suits Against Foreign States, Subcomm. on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations of the Comm. on the Judiciary (June 2 and 4, 1976) at 34.
  • [xxii] Federal Republic of Germany et al. v. Philipp et al., U.S. S. Ct. No. 19-351 (Feb. 3, 2021), Slip Op. at p. 8.
  • [xxiii] Republic of Aus. v. Altmann, 541 U.S. 677, 680, 124 S. Ct. 2240, 2243 (2004).
  • [xxiv] Id. It is worth noting that the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, but on a different issue (whether the FSIA applied retroactively, which it determined in the affirmative). See Republic of Austria v. Altmann, 541 U.S. 677 (2004).
  • [xxv] 965 F.2d 699 (9th Cir. 2002).

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